References for Empedocles

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  1. A P D Maurelatos, Biography in Dictionary of Scientific Biography (New York 1970-1990).
  2. Biography in Encyclopaedia Britannica.


  1. C E Millerd, On the Interpretation of Empedocles (1908, reprinted 1980).
  2. D O'Brien, Empedocles' Cosmic Cycle (Cambridge, 1969).
  3. G Sarton, Ancient Science through the Golden Age of Greece (New York, 1980).


  1. W K C Guthrie, A History of Greek Philosophy II (Cambridge, 1965), 122-265.
  2. J E Raven, The Presocratic Philosophers (Cambridge, 1957), 320-361.

JOC/EFR May 2000

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