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About 1AD

Chinese mathematician Liu Hsin uses decimal fractions.

About 20

Geminus writes a number of astronomy texts and *The Theory of Mathematics*. He tries to prove the parallel postulate. (See this History Topic.)

About 60

Heron of Alexandria writes *Metrica* (*Measurements*). It contains formulas for calculating areas and volumes.

About 90

Nicomachus of Gerasa writes *Arithmetike eisagoge* (*Introduction to Arithmetic*) which is the first work to treat arithmetic as a separate topic from geometry.

About 110

Menelaus of Alexandria writes *Sphaerica* which deals with spherical triangles and their application to astronomy.

About 150

Ptolemy produces many important geometrical results with applications in astronomy. His version of astronomy will be the accepted one for well over one thousand years.

About 250

The Maya civilization of Central America uses an almost place-value number system to base 20. (See this History Topic.)

250

Diophantus of Alexandria writes *Arithmetica*, a study of number theory problems in which only rational numbers are allowed as solutions.

263

By using a regular polygon with 192 sides Liu Hui calculates the value of π as 3.14159 which is correct to five decimal places. (See this History Topic.)

301

Iamblichus writes on astrology and mysticism. His *Life of Pythagoras* is a fascinating account.

340

Pappus of Alexandria writes *Synagoge* (*Collections*) which is a guide to Greek geometry.

390

Theon of Alexandria produces a version of Euclid's *Elements* (with textual changes and some additions) on which almost all subsequent editions are based.

About 400

Hypatia writes commentaries on Diophantus and Apollonius. She is the first recorded female mathematician and she distinguishes herself with remarkable scholarship. She becomes head of the Neo-Platonist school at Alexandria.

450

Proclus, a mathematician and Neo-Platonist, is one of the last philosophers at Plato's Academy at Athens.

About 460

Zu Chongzhi gives the approximation ^{355}/_{113} to π which is correct to 6 decimal places. (See this History Topic.)

499

Aryabhata I calculates π to be 3.1416. He produces his *Aryabhatiya*, a treatise on quadratic equations, the value of π, and other scientific problems.

About 500

Metrodorus assembles the *Greek Anthology* consisting of 46 mathematical problems.

List of mathematicians alive in 1AD.

List of mathematicians alive in 500.

JOC/EFR May 2015
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